It is hard for the satirist not to treat the world and its problems as pure comedy. The term Stracheyesque continues to evoke a particular style of writing and behavior that is transgressive, ironic, and always amusing. Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire, Carlyle, Thomas Sir Richard's second wife, Lytton's mother, was the daughter of Sir J. P. Grant of Rothiemurchus and was keen on French literature; she influenced Lytton's precocious literary talent. □. (December 21, 2020). It tells of their affairs, the ups and downs of their lives and how they interconnected. His father, Sir Richard Strachey, was a colonial Indian civil servant and civil engineer and a British army general; he was a typical Victorian explorer/ scientist. 8 letter words STRACHEY. Strachey's book of polemical essays caused a popular sensation. MAJOR WORKS: He wrote a number of histories including a biography of Queen Victoria and another work called Eminent Victorians. The humbug of the "eminent" Victorians was an easy target for Strachey to satirize, but it led critics to accuse him of caricature. In 1912 Strachey published his first book, on French literary history, Landmarks in French Literature, designed to awaken English readers to the charms of Racine and French classics. Treating his subjects from a highly idiosyncratic point of view, he was fascinated by personality and motive and delighted in pricking the pretensions of the great and reducing them to somewhat less than life-size. Lytton Strachey, in full Giles Lytton Strachey, (born March 1, 1880, London—died Jan. 21, 1932, Ham Spray House, near Hungerford, Berkshire, Eng. The Immo…, Amis, Kingsley An interesting account of Strachey and other members of the Bloomsbury group is provided by John Keith Johnstone, in The Bloomsbury Group; a study of E.M. Forster, Lytton Strachey, Virginia Woolf, and Their Circle (Noonday Press, 1954). He inaugurated the new era of biographical writing at the close of World War I. Even so, he had an iron will and sat in cultural judgment of the world his parents inhabited: the Victorian era. Michael Holroyd's two-volume biography of Strachey in 1968 (revised in 1995) offers a complex picture of a literary and sexual rebel still struggling with Victorian mores and legal codes as well as his own insecurities. He is best known for establishing a new form of biography in which psychological insight and sympathy are combined with irreverence and wit. Holroyd, Michael. English Literature, 20th cent. BORN: 1867, Kingston Hill, Surrey, England 21 Dec. 2020 . Lytton Strachey, in full Giles Lytton Strachey, (born March 1, 1880, London—died Jan. 21, 1932, Ham Spray House, near Hungerford, Berkshire, Eng. Lytton Strachey as a biographer. After Eminent Victorians (1918) and Queen Victoria (1921), he wrote Elizabeth and Essex (1928) and Portraits in Miniature (1931). In 1915 Strachey met the young art student Dora Carrington and, despite her subsequent marriage to Ralph Partridge and Strachey's love affairs, the couple shared a home for the next seventeen years. NATIONALITY: British Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Love literature? "—John Rothenstein, New York Times "Written with vivacity and scrupulousness. Irony is one thing; but it conceals too much from the author himself. But in his next book, Queen Victoria (1921), Strachey was seduced by his subject. One of the leading "Bloomsberries" was the "stream of consciousness" novelist Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), the sister of Vanessa Bell. DIED: 1951, Paris, France Adopting an irreverent attitude to the past and especially to the monumental life-and-letters volumes of Victorian biography, Strachey proposed to write lives … Definition of strachey Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Encyclopedia.com. to the Present: Biographies. But "friendship" meant, for Strachey, homosexual love. . Here, for example, Florence Nightingale appears as a "thin, angular woman" with a "haughty eye" and "acrid mouth," plagued by inner torments (173), and … BORN: 1922, London, England The biography of Strachey is really a biography of the Bloomsbury Group. The Bloomsbury Group: A Collection of Memoirs, Commentary, and Criticism. Lytton Strachey saw in Moore's doctrines the importance of aesthetic experience and the gospel of personal friendship. Since the 1990s Queer theorists have championed Strachey—with his effeminate style of dress, high voice, and penchant for Wildean satire—as a camp artist. The biographer Lytton Strachey belonged to the Bloomsbury Group. Lytton Strachey was named after his godfather, the first earl of Lytton, viceroy of India. ." Get an answer for 'What changes were brought by Lytton Strachey to the art of biography, especially in reference to Dr. Lytton had previously proposed marriage to Virginia (which he did not mean), but she had turned him down. Giles Lytton Strachey was the eleventh of thirteen children born to Sir Richard Strachey, engineer and Indian colonial servant, and Jane Grant, essayist and suffragist. Toronto, 1975. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. He was schooled at Leamington College, Liverpool University College, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He is often credited with adding the psychological dimension to modern biography. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The group expanded in number, and by the 1920s the fame of its individual members as writers, artists, and intellectuals sealed its reputation as a cultural circle. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/strachey-lytton. Almost instantly the postwar era plunged into "anti-Victorianism." DIED: 1995, London, England A teenager at the time of Oscar Wilde's trials for homosexuality, the young Strachey had struggled with what he called his "unnatural" desires, but at Cambridge he experienced a liberating moment in his sexual development. 2nd April 2017. He left the "petticoat world of Victorian schoolrooms" for Liverpool University in 1897, where Professor Walter Raleigh, his tutor in history and literature, was the main object of Lytton's hero worship. New York, 2002. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Lytton-Strachey, National Portrait Gallery - Biography of Lytton Strachey. He managed to be a "conscientious objector" to the war. After partly failing in Cambridge (with a second-class degree and no fellowship at Trinity), Strachey went to London to endure 13 years of penny-pinching frustration as a weekly reviewer for the Spectator, edited by his pedigreed cousin. Encyclopedia.com. The portrait of Strachey is a … Strachey also endured intense criticism while still alive from contemporaries like Rupert Brooke and D. H. Lawrence, who regarded his homosexuality as a corrupting influence among the younger generations at Cambridge. He was a writer, known for Gloriana (1984), Gloriana (2013) and Gloriana (2018). Leonard Woolf (1960) was on target, when he described the critic as "a strange character.". MAJOR WORKS: His defects as a biographer arose mainly from his limited vision of life. Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire. To the standard question; "If a German soldier tried to rape your sister, what would you do?" I envy him his access to these remarkable people, including Frances Partridge, James Strachey, a This was an extremely well-written, well-organized, enjoyable biography. It was at Trinity College, and later at King's College, that he met most of his intellectual friends, among them the philosopher G. E. Moore (1873-1958), the economist John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), the novelist E. M. Forster (1879-1970), the critic and publisher Leonard Woolf (1880-1969), and the art critic Clive Bell (1881-1964). He had an air of sick, melancholic sadness; he sagged. World Encyclopedia. The subject here is best termed sacred biography, which most precisely designates the written accounts of lives of persons deem…, Galsworthy, John Lytton Strachey, Writer: Gloriana. These were the attributes of the "good life." Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/strachey-giles-lytton. The C…, Woolf, Virginia He was a spoiled child, of frail health, and always withdrawn. He wore bookworm spectacles. Though he spent some years at boarding schools, including Abbotsholme and Leamington College, he received much of his education at home. Lytton Strachey by Himself: A Self-Portrait. The Apostles were personally affected by the philosophy of G. E. Moore. The four objects of Strachey's satire were Cardinal H. E. Manning, formerly a prominent Anglican member of the Oxford Movement, converted to Catholicism in 1851; Florence Nightingale, the "Lady with the Lamp," a founder of nursing and active with the wounded in the Crimean War; Thomas Arnold of Rugby School; and General C. G. "Chinese" Gordon, the pious hero killed by Mahdi raiders in the siege of Khartoum in 1885. GENRE: Nonfiction There was an element of theater, of almost pantomime, in Strachey's treatment of the Victorians. He did prefer, however, what he called the "subtle attack" to undermine Victorian strictures on religious, artistic, social, and sexual matters. For at least some of this, we can thank the iconoclastic Lytton Strachey. Diagnosed a neurasthenic as a teen, Strachey suffered from poor health his entire life, yet managed to have a prolific career as a writer. ), English biographer and critic who opened a new era of biographical writing at the close of World War I. Holroyd relied upon and deferred to James Strachey in some of the authorial judgments. . Giles Lytton Strachey (1880-1932) was an English biographer and critic known for his satire of the Victorian Era. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images [Michael Holroyd] has a great novelist's sense of the obstinate mystery of the human person. MAJOR WORKS: ." ." Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Lytton Strachey, in full Giles Lytton Strachey, (born March 1, 1880, London--died Jan. 21, 1932, Ham Spray House, near Hungerford, Berkshire, Eng. André Gide But human relationships were the nexus of life itself. . Lytton Strachey: A Critical Biography. Keynes, Virginia Wolf and the others who lived or met around the London Suburb of Bloomsbury. Lytton Strachey, in full Giles Lytton Strachey, was an English biographer and critic who opened a new era of biographical writing at the close of World War I. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/strachey-giles-lytton, "Strachey, (Giles) Lytton During World War I, Strachey was a conscientious objector, but his impact on the larger public would be felt most strongly in 1918 with the publication of his best-selling work, Eminent Victorians. GENRE: Fiction, drama The last release addressed new findings in the quarter … ." 21 Dec. 2020 . His biographical creed was to paint a picture of the person from the author's viewpoint—never mind the scholarly inhibitions, never mind the search to find "the truth" of any human situation so far as is possible. We've arranged the synonyms in length order so that they are easier to find. His works include Eminent Victorians (1918), Queen Victoria (1921), and Elizabeth and Essex (1928). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He turned a blind eye to Moore's inherent puritanism. . Omissions? Strachey was fairly tall and excessively thin, with a disguising rust beard and a shrill voice. Strachey's painstaking biographer, Michael Holroyd, revealed the Strachey letters, laying it all out in two volumes in 1967 and 1968 ("two fat volumes," as Strachey would have said). Though bitterly attacked during his lifetime and after, Strachey remains a phenomenon in English letters and a preeminent humorist and wit. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1903 fellow Apostle George Edward Moore published Principia Ethica, producing a profound effect on the aspiring intellectuals. Giles Lytton Strachey was born in 1880, the eleventh of thirteen children, to General Sir Richard Strachey and his wife Jane Grant. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. "Mordant irony" was replaced by grudging respect for the queen, even though Strachey felt himself amused by her antics. Lytton Strachey was born in London on March 1, 1880. Before him, the biographer used to neglect like a hagiographer the darker side of their heroes because they generally used to idealize their heroes by representing them as angels of virtue. Strachey was a person who was gay. Likewise Strachey’s essay on Nightingale draws mostly on the two-decker biography by Sir Edward Cook (1913), a book that Strachey himself … He revisited the work by popular request and in 1971 released two revised volumes for Penguin Press: Lytton Strachey: A Biography and Lytton Strachey and the Bloomsbury Group. "Strachey, (Giles) Lytton The biography of Strachey is really a biography of the Bloomsbury Group. Even though Lytton's family members on both sides were well-connected and prosperous, the large parental home in unfashionable Bayswater was "suffocating" to him. . His sexuality, more than his writings, has continued to be a topic of scholarly debate. ." Holroyd, Michael, ed. Rosenbaum, S. P., ed. NATIONALITY: French Surrounded by those he regarded as fellow "Greek souls," Strachey became a vocal advocate of the physical and spiritual superiority of all-male love. BORN: 1882, London, England ." He saw religion as Voltaire saw it, as a "ludicrous anachronism." Updates? ReadCentral.com offers the most comprehensive collection of books and writings by Lytton Strachey His aim was to paint a portrait; and though this led to caricature and sometimes, through tendentious selection of material, to inaccuracy, he taught biographers a sense of form and of background, and he sharpened their critical acumen. STRACHEY, LYTTON (1880–1932), English writer, member of the Bloomsbury Group. Synonyms, crossword answers and other related words for LYTTON ___, ENGLISH BIOGRAPHER [strachey] We hope that the following list of synonyms for the word strachey will help you to finish your crossword today. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/giles-lytton-strachey. ed., 1 vol., 1995. (December 21, 2020). Taddeo, Julie Anne. He inaugurated the new era of biographical writing at the close of World War I. GENRE: Fiction He favored for himself brief biographies, the art of which rested on the subject's motive and personality as he saw it. Bloomsbury itself became a widely used term connoting an insular, snobbish aestheticism. GENRE: Fiction; poetry; criticism His following works included Queen Victoria (1921), which was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize, Elizabeth and Essex (1928), and Portraits in Miniature (1931). (December 21, 2020). The war-weary generation wanted to hear this wholesale assault on past idols. Adopting an irreverent attitude to the past and especially to the monumental life-and-letters volumes of Victorian biography, Strachey proposed to write lives with “a brevity which excludes everything that is redundant and nothing that is significant.” He is best known for Eminent Victorians—short sketches of the Victorian idols Cardinal Manning, Florence Nightingale, Thomas Arnold, and Gen. Charles “Chinese” Gordon. Lytton Strachey was born in London on March 1, 1880. ", The decline of Strachey's reputation came soon after his death. Author Bio: Lytton Strachey. Lytton Strachey, whose iconoclastic reexaminations of historical figures forever changed the course of modern biographical writing, was born in London on March 1, 1880.He was educated in a series of private schools and attended University College, Liverpool, before entering Trinity College, Cambridge, in … Careers in public service were mainly full of political intrigue. They joined such other members of what became known as the Bloomsbury Group as Keynes, Clive Bell, Roger Fry, and Leonard Woolf for drinks and conversations about philosophy, art, religion, and politics. Lytton Strachey’s brother James Strachey was still alive during the original writing. GENRE: Fiction, nonfiction "Giles Lytton Strachey Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire. Lady Strachey also inspired Lytton's early interest in literature. Keynes, Virginia Wolf and the others who lived or met around the London Suburb of Bloomsbury. DIED: 1941, Lewes, Sussex, England Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/giles-lytton-strachey, "Giles Lytton Strachey Lytton Strachey (March 1, 1880–January 21, 1932) was an English writer and critic. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). ytton Strachey (1880-1932) was an essayist and biographer, and a prominent member of London's culturally élite Bloomsbury Group. DIED: 1933, London, England "Giles Lytton Strachey He fell in with the Bloomsbury Group, the same sort of society in London as the Cambridge Apostles (their leading members were the same). He published critical writings, especially on French literature, but his greatest achievement was in biography. London, 1971. Authors who discuss Strachey in magazines include Edwin Muir, Nation and Athenaeum (April 25, 1925); John Raymond, New Statesman and Nation (April 16, 1955); Scott James, BC/Longmans (1955); Gertrude Himmelfarb, New Republic (May 28, 1968); and Noel Annan, New York Review of Books (June 6, 1968). NATIONALITY: British See also David Cecil, DNB, (Dictionary of National Biography; London, 1931-1940). BIOGRAPHY . Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. British biographer and literary critic, Lytton Strachey at Ham Spray, Wiltshire, the home he shared with painter, Dora Carrington andassociated with the 'Bloomsbury Group' circle of friends. Lytton Strachey - A Critical Biography [Vol.1] (THE UNKNOWN YEARS 1880-1910, 1880-1910) by MICHAEL HOLROYD and a great selection of related books, art … Strachey's biographer, Stanford Patrick Rosenbaum argues: "Strachey's preface to Eminent Victorians (1918) is a manifesto of modern biography, with its insistence that truth could now be only fragmentary, and that human beings were more than symptoms of history. BORN: 1795, Ecclefechan, Scotland Although unsuccessful in forming lasting attachments with other men (his lovers included his cousin, the artist Duncan Grant, and Colette's translator, Roger Senhouse), he did inspire lifelong devotion from one person. After his death in 1932 from cancer, Carrington committed suicide, noting in her diary that she was unable to live without Strachey. He also spent his Thursday evenings in the decade before World War I at the Gordon Square home of Virginia and Vanessa Stephen. He was the eleventh of thirteen children of an upper-middle-class family. Michael Holroyd is the author of acclaimed biographies of George Bernard Shaw, the painter Augustus John, Lytton Strachey, and Ellen Terry and Henry Irving, as well as two memoirs, Basil Street Blues and Mosaic.Knighted for his services to literature, he is the president emeritus of the Royal Society of Literature and the only nonfiction writer to have been awarded the David Cohen British Prize ." Eminent Victorians, by Lytton Strachey, Penguin … Encyclopedia.com. Lytton Strachey Biography Eminent Victorians Questions and Answers The Question and Answer section for Eminent Victorians is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Lytton Strachey and the Search for Modern Sexual Identity: The Last Eminent Victorian. Read Lytton Strachey ’s biography, works and quotes online for free. Some scholars, however, have questioned Strachey's feminist sympathies and have portrayed his relationship with Dora Carrington as that of patriarch and household drudge. Corrections? After studying at Cambridge (1899–1903), Strachey lived in London, where he became a leader in the artistic, intellectual, and literary Bloomsbury group (q.v.). He published his major book, Eminent Victorians, in 1918. Strachey died of cancer on January 21, 1932, surrounded by his friends, at Ham Spray House, Hungerford. His father, Sir Richard Strachey, was a colonial Indian civil servant and civil engineer and a British army general; he was a typical Victorian explorer/ scientist. A founding member of the Bloomsbury Group and author of Eminent Victorians (1918), he is best known for establishing a new form of biography in which psychological insight and sympathy are combined with irreverence and wit. In his preface, Strachey enunciated the two fold principle of selection and scrutiny which was to … NATIONALITY: British MAJOR W…, Gide, André "—George Steiner, The New Yorker "It is impossible to suppose that this ‘Life' will ever be superseded . His biography of Queen Victoria was awarded the James Tait … Lucky Jim…, Lyttleton, Humphrey “Humph” (Richard Adeane), Lytell, Jimmy (originally, Sarrapede, James), Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron, Lytton, Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton, earl of, Lytton, Victor Alexander George Robert Lytton, 2d earl of, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/giles-lytton-strachey, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/strachey-lytton, https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/strachey-giles-lytton. Principia identified love and friendship as "the highest of human goods" and became a rationalizing factor in loosening the repression of homosexual tendencies among the Apostles. Encyclopedia.com. Of all the Bloomsberries, Strachey took precedence (for instance, the Bloomsbury Group began to decline after his own death in 1932). Carrington committed suicide immediately after his death. NATIONALITY: Scottish London, Anthony d’Offay Gallery (available through Yale University’s Digital Resources Collection). The biographer's responsibility was to preserve both a becoming brevity and his own freedom of spirit, which for Strachey meant illustrating … He died on January 21, 1932 in Hungerford, Berkshire, England. Marshlands (1895) Lytton Strachey was born in London on March 1, 1880. Although heralded in 1918 as a revolutionary biographer, Strachey temporarily faded into obscurity in the years following his death, and his work, along with that of the other "Bloomsberries," was attacked by Cambridge critics I. The portrait of Strachey is a gentle and affectionate one. The war was of no consequence to Lytton's endless "partying" in country houses, nor to his writing schedule. The themes, common to the four biographical sketches of the volume, were the sacred icons of Victorian sentiment: patriotic fervor and Christian messianic zeal, the ideal of the "public" school, and humanitarianism, as opposed to what Strachey thought were the perils of upper-class education, self-interested do-goodism, and, above all, the sins of Victorian imperialism. Modern biography editing your bibliography or works cited list for primary education Strachey went uncongenial. So, he received much of his education at home the satirist not treat... 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